By John M. Last
Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are continuously altering. common during the international, this e-book will proceed to function the traditional English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth variation. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and plenty of from similar fields similar to biostatistics, infectious ailment keep an eye on, healthiness promoting, genetics, scientific epidemiology, future health economics, and clinical ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's house for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of significant phrases. subsidized through the foreign Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of various international locations. the entire definitions have been reviewed again and again through a global community of participants from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with no being authoritarian. The Fourth variation comprises good over a hundred and fifty new entries and giant revisions of concerning the comparable variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. a few of the new phrases relate to equipment utilized in environmental and medical epidemiology.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition
False conclusions about the explanation for associations between variables. Example: Having correctly deduced the mode of transmission of cholera, John Snow concluded that yellow fever was transmitted by similar means. In fact, the "miasma" theory would have been a better fit for the facts of yellow fever transmission. BIAS IN AUTOPSY SERIES Systematic error resulting from the fact that autopsies represent a nonrandom sample of all deaths. BIAS IN HANDLING OUTLIERS Error arising from a failure to discard an unusual value occurring in a small sample or due to exclusion of unusual values that should be included.
BLOCKED RANDOMIZATION The analogue in a randomized experiment of individual matching in an observational study. See also STRATIFIED RANDOMIZATION. BLOT, WESTERN, NORTHERN, SOUTHERN Varieties of tests using electrophoresis, nucleic acid base pairing, and/or protein antibody interaction to detect and identify DNA or RNA samples. The Southern blot, named for its discoverer, E. Southern, is used to identify a specific segment of DNA in a sample. Molecular biologists named variations of the test for the points of the compass.
A positive association has been observed between exposure to the agent and cancer, for which a causal interpretation is credible, but chance, bias, or confounding cannot be ruled out. 3. Inadequate evidence. Available studies are of insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of a causal relationship. 4. Evidence suggesting lack of carcinogenicity. Several adequate studies covering the full range 20 21 case-base study of doses to which humans are known to be exposed are mutually consistent in not showing a positive association between exposure to the agent and any studied cancer at any level of exposure.
A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition by John M. Last