By Hanan Frenk, Reuven Dar (auth.)
Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the key issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. professionals comparable to the health care professional common of the us and the Royal university of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This booklet is a critique of the nicotine dependancy speculation, according to a severe overview of the learn literature that purports to end up that nicotine is as addictive drug. The evaluate relies on a re-assessment of greater than seven hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental stories, results of `nicotine substitute therapies', and plenty of different suitable assets. This evaluation concludes that on current proof, there's each cause to reject the commonly permitted concept that nicotine has an incredible function in cigarette smoking. A severe exam of the standards for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met by way of nicotine, and that it truly is more likely that nicotine in truth limits instead of allows smoking.
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Extra info for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction
If, however, we discover that during nail biting, some nail polish is ingested, we would tend to attribute the compulsive behavior to the nail polish even if, in reality, this “drug” has no role in causing the observed compulsion. In the next chapter, we will raise the possibility that the Surgeon General’s declaration that nicotine is the addictive drug that causes smoking exemplifies this very seductive, but false, attributional bias. Chapter 4 SMOKING DEFINED AS AN ADDICTION 1. THE SURGEON GENERAL REVIVES THE TERM ‘ADDICTION’ By 1988, most of the medical literature had dropped the term ‘addiction’ like a hot potato.
Other drugs, such as heroin and barbiturates (at least at high doses), tend to decrease arousal and behavior. It is no accident that in the jargon of users amphetamine is called ‘speed’ and barbiturates ‘downers,’ or that morphine received it name from Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams and sleep. As we will show in our discussion of electrical self-stimulation (see Chapter 7), the effects of drugs on arousal, like their effects on memory, may confound the interpretation of experimental results.
Most use psychoactive 28 Chapter 3 drugs that are common and legal, such as caffeine (in coffee and soft drinks like coca-cola), alcohol (in wine or beer) and the subject of this book – nicotine in cigarettes. The same probably holds for all other countries in the world. Only for a minority of countries, however, systematic surveys assessing drug habits of the populations are available. We chose to rely on a recent survey performed 561 in Amsterdam, Holland . In this survey, over 4,000 respondents were asked to report which drug they had ever used, which they had used last year, and which they had used during the month preceding the survey.
A Critique of Nicotine Addiction by Hanan Frenk, Reuven Dar (auth.)