By Mukul Sarkar
Biological platforms are a resource of idea within the improvement of small self reliant sensor nodes. the 2 significant kinds of optical imaginative and prescient structures present in nature are the one aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the such a lot compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays. The visible approach of bugs lets them fly with a restricted intelligence and mind processing strength. A CMOS picture sensor replicating the conception of imaginative and prescient in bugs is mentioned and designed during this publication for commercial (machine imaginative and prescient) and clinical functions.
The CMOS steel layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer in a position to experience polarization info. This polarization info is proven to be invaluable in functions like actual time fabric class and self reliant agent navigation. additional the sensor is supplied with in pixel analog and electronic thoughts which enable edition of the dynamic variety and in-pixel binarization in genuine time. The binary output of the pixel attempts to duplicate the flickering influence of the insect’s eye to notice smallest attainable movement in accordance with the switch in country. An in-built counter counts the alterations in states for every row to estimate the course of the movement. The chip comprises an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies a space of five x four mm2 and it's been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS method from UMC.
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1007/ 978-3-642-34901-0 3 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 50 3 Charge coupled device Design of a CMOS Image Sensor CMOS image sensor Analog output photon to electron conversion electron to voltage conversion Analog output photon to voltage conversion Fig. 1 Functional difference between a CCD and a CMOS image sensor displayed. Both CCDs and CMOS sensors use arrays of millions of photo-detection sites, which are commonly referred to as pixels. CCDs were invented in 1969 by George Smith and Willard Boyle at Bell Labs.
These makes the overall resolution of the compound eyevery poor. • Light sensitivity can be increased by summing the electrical signal optically or neurologically, but this reduces both the spatial resolution as well as the temporal resolution. e. the number of images formed in a given time instance, is much higher for the insects eyes than the human eyes. • The ommatidia provides a large focal depth because of extremely short focal length. • In insect’s eye the angular resolution is constant for a large distance, while the spatial resolution scales linearly.
The resolution obtained with compound eye is very poor compared to single aperture eye. • The contrast can be increased either by increasing the lens aperture allowing more light to pass through or increasing the time for which the light is collected. • The small lens aperture of the compound eyes gives them poor contrast vision. The response time of the animals is also very low thus cannot spend more time integrating light. These makes the overall resolution of the compound eyevery poor. • Light sensitivity can be increased by summing the electrical signal optically or neurologically, but this reduces both the spatial resolution as well as the temporal resolution.
A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor by Mukul Sarkar